The Lutuginsky plant of building materials under the trademark “LITOS” produces and sells a wide range of high-quality building materials that meet all modern standards for these products. One of the main directions of production of TM “Litos” is the manufacture and sale of building bricks.
Brick is one of the main building materials. What do you know about its history and production technology?
The definition of the word “brick” first appeared in Russian around the 14th century. Historians claim that it comes from the Turkic languages, for example, from Tatar – “kirpic”. Some argue that perhaps the word “brick” is a compound of two Turkic words: “kir” – clay and “pich” – to heat, boil, bake. Before the appearance of the word “brick” in Russia, the concept of “plinth” was used. So, one of the references to the plinth is found in the descriptions of the visit of Tsar Ivan the Terrible to the unfinished St. Sophia Cathedral in Vologda, when the plinth almost fell on the tsar, literally: “like a red plinth fell from the vault of a dull one.”
Plinfa was a thin wide plate of clay with a thickness of about 2.5 cm. Plinfa was produced in special forms made of wooden boards. The clay mass was molded, dried for about 10 – 14 days, and then fired in a kiln. On the surface of the plinths, special stamps were left not by the manufacturer, but by the customer, for whom exactly the batch was intended.
Starting from the 16th century, there are references to standard fired bricks. Until the 19th century, the production of bricks was a laborious and primitive process. The molding of bricks into molds was carried out exclusively by hand, drying was carried out only in the summer, and firing was carried out in temporary ovens, which were built from dried raw bricks. Already in the middle of the 19th century, a special ring kiln for firing and a belt press were built for the first time, which revolutionized the industrial production of bricks. By the end of the 19th century, special dryers began to be equipped in brick production. Around the same time, special clay-working machines – rollers, runners, pug mills – began to appear. Currently, more than 80% of all bricks produced are produced by enterprises year-round, there are production facilities (special mechanized factories) capable of producing more than 200 million units of products per year.
Some of the oldest buildings that have survived to this day were built using unbaked raw bricks, in most cases with the addition of chopped straw to the clay mortar. There is also historical evidence of the use of baked bricks in construction work, for example, in ancient times (3 – 2 millennium BC) buildings were erected in Egypt from it.
Brick played one of the main roles in construction work in ancient Rome and Mesopotamia. There, bricks measuring 45x30x10 cm were used to build complex, and in modern times too, structures, including vaults, arches, etc. One of the brightest examples of the brick building art of the era of John III was the erection of walls and the construction of temples of the Moscow Kremlin, the construction process of which was supervised by specially invited Italian masters.
Currently, building bricks are of excellent quality, high performance, and also meet all modern building codes and requirements. Brick produced by TM “Litos” is a guaranteed high quality, compliance with production technology and a wide range of color and texture solutions. The products of the Litos plant embodied modern technologies, centuries-old experience, high quality raw materials, professionalism and conscientiousness of the personnel of the Lutuginsky building materials plant.